There are five pillars of Islam and all these pillars are the practices which are obligatory for the Muslims in almost any case. In Islam who doesn't follow any of these pillars will be called an Infidel. These five pillars are
The greatness of Hajj is that is the combination of all these pillars of Islam and Hajj is compulsory for a Muslim to perform at least once in his/her lifetime and the interesting thing about Hajj is that it is only compulsory for those people who can afford it comfortably and the Muslims who can afford a pilgrimage but still don't perform it has a strict punishment to face afterlife.
The Islamic calendar works according to the Lunar (Moon revolving) system unlike the solar calendar of the rest of the world. The Dhul-Hijjah comes at the last place of the calendar, the 12th month and the hajj technically happens in the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, well, it doesn't entirely get completed in the first ten days but most of the obligatory part of Hajj is performed in those days.
The male warps themselves in a unique way with a white dress called "Ahram" and women have to cover their hair in a hijab, though no women are allowed to cover her face. These symbols are made to describe that each human is same in Islam.
Kaaba is a black cube-shaped stone structure which is covered with a black silk, the silk is designed with some verses in Arabic and those verses are designed on it with pure gold and the interesting fact is that the holy fabric is changed every year. The Kaaba is basically the main goal spot in the whole pilgrimage, millions of Muslims united walks by circling Kaaba seven times which is called as "Tawaf" in the pilgrimage. The people performing the hajj keep reciting a specific Arabic verse collectively in loud voices, the basic meaning of that verse is to tell Allah that we are present there for Him.
The Hajj ends with Eid-ul-Adha and the Muslims all around the world sacrifice a halal animal usually among goat, bull, camel etc. The meat is then distributed in several categories among relatives and poor.
The ideology behind this sacrifice is that Prophet Abraham had a dream for three times to sacrifice your most precious thing for Allah, then he realized the most important thing was his son (Ismail) to him and after the consent of Ismail Hazrat Abraham made his mind to sacrifice his son and the moment he was to put a knife in the neck of his son, Allah replaced his son with a bull and from that time the sacrifice of animal is being performed in every Hajj.
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